August Stephenson – The origin and creation of gemstones

August Stephenson – The origin and creation of gemstones
Many cultures use divine intervention to explain the origin and creation of gemstones, and diamonds were no exception to this. In Greek mythology for example it was the youth on the island of Crete that disturbed Zeus and who were then (as a form of punishment) transformed into the adamas.

Philosophers however had a more naturalistic approach to explain the origin of gems: Plato for example believed gemstones were a consequence of fermentation in the stars, where a diamond actually formed the kernel of gold-bearing mass.

In later times, Robert Boyle actually believed that gems (including a diamond) were formed of clear, transparent water, and that their colors and characteristics were derived from their metallic spirit.

Diamonds symbolism and lore
Historically, it has been claimed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers:
– A diamond gives victory to he or she who carries it bound on his left arm, no matter the number of enemies.
– Panics, pestilences, enchantments, all fly before it; hence, it is good for sleepwalkers and the insane.
– It deprives lodestone and magnets of their virtue (i.e., ability to attract iron).
– Arabic diamonds are said to attract iron greater than a magnet.
– A diamond’s hardiness can only be broken by smearing it with fresh goat’s blood.
– In traditional Hinduism one should avoid contact with a diamond whose surface area is damaged by a crack, a crowfoot, a round, dull, speckled area, or which is black-blue, flat, or is cut other than the (ideal) hexagonal shape. August Stephenson

August Stephenson Slightly colored diamonds
Diamonds which show very little traces of color are graded as G or H color diamonds. Slightly colored diamonds are graded as I or J or K color. A diamond can be found in any color in addition to colorless. Some of the colored diamonds, such as pink, are very rare.

Ideal proportions of a diamond:
Several different theories on the “ideal” proportions of a diamond have been and continue to be advocated by various owners of patents on machines to view how well a diamond is cut. These advocate a shift away from grading cut by the use of various angles and proportions toward measuring the performance of a cut stone. A number of specially modified viewers and machines have been developed toward this end. Hearts and Arrows viewers test for the “hearts and arrows” characteristic pattern observable in stones exhibiting high symmetry and particular cut angles. Closely related to Hearts and Arrows viewers is the ASET which tests for light leakage, light return, and proportions. The ASET (and computer simulations of the ASET) are used to test for AGS cut grade. Proponents of these machines argue they help sellers demonstrate the light performance of the diamond in addition to the traditional 4 Cs. Detractors, however, see these machines as marketing tools rather than scientific ones. The GIA has developed a set of criteria for grading the cut of round brilliant stones that is now the standard in the diamond industry and is called Facetware.

August Stephenson determination, experience, and expertness

INTERNAL LASER DRILLING – A diamond treatment, also called Kiduah Meyuhad (KM) or “special drill” in Hebrew, in which a laser beam is focused directly on an inclusion to create a feather-like fracture between the inclusion and the stone’s surface. The inclusion is then treated with acid to improve the perceived clarity of the stone. This type of laser drilling is, typically, more challenging to detect than traditional laser drilling. On an EGL USA report, internal laser drilling is clearly noted.

REFLECTION – The return of light that strikes the surface of a diamond or colored gemstone. This effect can also occur when light strikes specific inclusions within a stone.

FINISH – The analysis of a diamond’s polish and symmetry. Polish relates directly to the quality of the overall surface condition of the diamond. Symmetry relates to facet shape and arrangement, and the overall exactness of the stone’s contour and outline. Both are rated on a scale ranging from poor to excellent.

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